Gustave Caillebotte

French, Impressionist, 1848-1894

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The Floor Scrapers
Gustave Caillebotte
321 USD


Young Man at his Window
Gustave Caillebotte

272 USD

Paris Street, Rainy Day
Gustave Caillebotte

329 USD

The Garden at Petit Gennevilliers
in Winter

Gustave Caillebotte

286 USD
 
Yellow Roses in a Vase
Gustave Caillebotte

228 USD
 
Portraits in the Countryside
Gustave Caillebotte

309 USD
 
Anchored Boat on the Seine
at Argenteuil

Gustave Caillebotte

245 USD
 
Richard Gallo and his Dog
at Petit Gennevilliers

Gustave Caillebotte

241 USD
 
Le Pont de l'Europe
Gustave Caillebotte

293 USD
 
The Orange Trees (Les Orangers)
Gustave Caillebotte

281 USD
 
Les Périssoires
Gustave Caillebotte

236 USD
 
Man on a Balcony,
Boulevard Haussmann

Gustave Caillebotte

240 USD
 
A Balcony, Boulevard Haussmann
Gustave Caillebotte

247 USD
 
Fruit Displayed on a Stand
Gustave Caillebotte

240 USD
 
Sailing Boats at Argenteuil
Gustave Caillebotte

226 USD
 
The Path Uphill (Chemin Montant)
Gustave Caillebotte

243 USD
 
Bord de Seine a Argenteuil
Gustave Caillebotte

227 USD
 
Skiffs
Gustave Caillebotte

240 USD
 
Nude on a Couch
Gustave Caillebotte

271 USD
 
Henri Cordier
Gustave Caillebotte

243 USD
 
Mademoiselle Boissière Knitting
Gustave Caillebotte

244 USD
 
Kitchen Garden, Petit Gennevilliers
Gustave Caillebotte

244 USD
 
Regatta at Argenteuil
Gustave Caillebotte

238 USD
 
Maisons à Argenteuil
Gustave Caillebotte

226 USD
 
Champ au Bord de Mer
Gustave Caillebotte

227 USD
 
Man at His Bath
Gustave Caillebotte

238 USD
 
Boating on the Yerres
Gustave Caillebotte

234 USD
 
The Pontoon at Argenteuil
Gustave Caillebotte

238 USD
 
Garden Rose and Blue Forget Me Nots in a Vase
Gustave Caillebotte

220 USD
 
The Bather, or The Diver
Gustave Caillebotte

240 USD
 
Woman at a Dressing Table
Gustave Caillebotte

242 USD
 
The Harbour of Argentueil
Gustave Caillebotte

244 USD
 
The Artist's House at Yerres
Gustave Caillebotte

243 USD
 
Still Life with a Vase of Lilacs
Gustave Caillebotte

226 USD
 
The Promenade at Argenteuil
Gustave Caillebotte

242 USD
 
Pont d'Argenteuil
Gustave Caillebotte

242 USD

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 Gustave Caillebotte (19 August 1848 – 21 February 1894) was a French painter, member and patron of the group of artists known as Impressionists, though he painted in a much more realistic manner than many other artists in the group. Caillebotte was noted for his early interest in photography as an art form.

After the war, Caillebotte began visiting the studio of painter Léon Bonnat, where he began to study painting seriously. He developed an accomplished style in a relatively short period of time and had his first studio in his parents' home. In 1873, Caillebotte entered the École des Beaux-Arts, but apparently did not spend much time there. He inherited his father's fortune in 1874 and the remaining sons divided the family fortune after their mother's death in 1878. Around 1874, Caillebotte met and befriended several artists working outside the official French Academy, including Edgar Degas and Giuseppe de Nittis, and attended (but did not participate in) the first Impressionist exhibition of 1874.

The "Impressionists" – also called the "Independents", "Intransigents", and "Intentionalists" – had broken away from the academic painters showing in the annual Salons. Caillebotte made his debut in the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876, showing eight paintings including Les raboteurs de parquet (The Floor Scrapers) (1875), his earliest masterpiece. Its subject matter, the depiction of labourers preparing a wooden floor (thought to have been that of the artist's own studio) was considered "vulgar" by some critics and this is the probable reason for its rejection by the Salon of 1875. At the time, the art establishment deemed only rustic peasants or farmers as acceptable subjects from the working class. The painting now resides at the Musée d'Orsay. A second version, in a more realistic style resembling that of Degas, was also exhibited, demonstrating Caillebotte's range of technique and his adept restatement of the same subject matter.

Style

Caillebotte's style belongs to the School of Realism but was strongly influenced by his Impressionist associates. In common with his precursors, Jean-François Millet and Gustave Courbet, as well his contemporary Degas, Caillebotte aimed to paint reality as it existed and as he saw it, hoping to reduce painting's inherent theatricality. Perhaps because of his close relationship with so many of his peers, his style and technique vary considerably among his works, as if "borrowing" and experimenting, but not really sticking to any one style. At times, he seems very much in the Degas camp of rich-colored realism (especially his interior scenes) and at other times, he shares the Impressionists' commitment to "optical truth" and employs an impressionistic pastel-softness and loose brush strokes most similar to Renoir and Pissarro, though with a less vibrant palette.

The tilted ground common to these paintings is very characteristic of Caillebotte's work, which may have been strongly influenced by Japanese prints and the new technology of photography, though evidence of his actual use of photography is lacking. Cropping and "zooming-in", techniques which are also commonly found in Caillebotte's oeuvre, may also be the result of his interest in photography, but may just as likely derive from his intense interest in perspective effects. A large number of Caillebotte's works also employ a very high vantage point, including View of Rooftops (Snow) (Vue de toits (Effet de neige)) (1878), Boulevard Seen from Above (Boulevard vu d'en haut) (1880), and A Traffic Island (Un refuge, boulevard Haussmann) (1880).

Themes

Caillebotte painted many domestic and familial scenes, interiors, and portraits. Many of his paintings depict members of his family; Young Man at his Window (Jeune Homme à la fenêtre) (1875) shows René in the home on rue de Miromesnil; The Orange Trees (Les orangers) (1878), depicts Martial Jr. and his cousin Zoë in the garden of the family property at Yerres; and Portraits in the Country (Portraits à la campagne) (1875) includes Caillebotte's mother along with his aunt, cousin, and a family friend. There are scenes of dining, card playing, piano playing, reading and sewing all executed in an intimate, unobtrusive manner which observes the quiet ritual of upper-class indoor life.

His country scenes at Yerres focus on pleasure boating on the leisurely stream as well as fishing and swimming, and domestic scenes around his country home. Often, he used a soft impressionistic technique reminiscent of Renoir to convey the tranquil nature of the countryside, in sharp contrast to the flatter, smoother strokes of his urban paintings. In Oarsman in a Top Hat (1877), he effectively manages the perspective of a passenger in the back of a row boat facing his rowing companion and the stream ahead, in a manner much more realistic and involving than Manet's Boating (1874). 

Caillebotte is best known for his paintings of urban Paris, such as The Europe Bridge (Le Pont de l'Europe) (1876), and Paris Street; Rainy Day (Rue de Paris; temps de pluie, also known as La Place de l'Europe, temps de pluie) (1877). The latter is almost unique among his works for its particularly flat colors and photo-realistic effect which gives the painting its distinctive and modern look, almost akin to American Realists such as Edward Hopper. Many of his urban paintings were quite controversial due to their exaggerated, plunging perspective. In Man on a Balcony (1880), he invites the viewer to share the balcony with his subject and join in observing the scene of the city reaching into the distance, again by using unusual perspective. Showing little allegiance to any one style, many of Caillebotte's other urban paintings produced in the same period, such as The Place Saint-Augustin (1877), are considerably more impressionistic.

Caillebotte's still life paintings focus primarily on food, some at table ready to be eaten and some ready to be purchased, as in a series of paintings he made of meat at a butcher shop. He also produced some floral still-life paintings, particularly in the 1890s. Rounding out his subject matter, he painted a few nudes, including Homme au bain (1884) and Nude on a Couch (1882), which, though provocative in its realism, is ambivalent in its mood - neither overtly erotic nor suggestive of mythology - themes common to many female nude paintings of that era.

Caillebotte's collection 

Convinced after the death of his younger brother René in 1876 that his own life would be short, Caillebotte wrote his will while still in his twenties. In his will, Caillebotte donated a large collection to the French government. This collection ultimately included sixty-eight paintings by various artists: Camille Pissarro (nineteen), Claude Monet (fourteen), Pierre-Auguste Renoir (ten), Alfred Sisley (nine), Edgar Degas (seven), Paul Cézanne (five), and Édouard Manet (four).

At the time of Caillebotte's death, the Impressionists were still largely condemned by the art establishment in France, which was dominated by Academic art and specifically the Académie des beaux-arts. Because of this, Caillebotte realised that the cultural treasures in his collection would likely disappear into "attics" and "provincial museums". He therefore stipulated that they must be displayed in the Luxembourg Palace (devoted to the work of living artists), and then in the Louvre.

Unfortunately, the French government would not agree to these terms. In February 1896, they finally negotiated terms with Renoir, who was the will's executor, under which they took thirty-eight of the paintings to the Luxembourg. The installation constituted the first presentation of the Impressionists in a public venue in France. The remaining twenty-nine paintings (one, a Degas, was taken by Renoir in payment for his services as executor) were offered to the French government twice more, in 1904 and 1908, and were both times refused. When the government finally attempted to claim them in 1928, the bequest was repudiated by the widow of Caillebotte's brother Martial Caillebotte. Most of the remaining works were purchased by Albert C. Barnes, and are now held by the Barnes Foundation.

Forty of Caillebotte's own works are now held by the Musée d'Orsay. His Man on a Balcony, Boulevard Haussmann (Homme au balcon, boulevard Haussmann) (1880), sold for more than US$14.3 million in 2000.

Source: Wikipedia