Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

French, Neoclassical, 1780-1867

 Page 1 of  1   


The Grand Odalisque
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
319 USD


Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
348 USD

Portrait of French Journalist
Louis-François Bertin

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
306 USD

The Turkish Bath
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
397 USD
 
Oedipus and the Sphinx
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
328 USD
 
Odalisque with Slave
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
346 USD
 
The Virgin Adoring the Host
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
263 USD
 
The Great Bather
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
254 USD
 
The Spring
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
275 USD
 
Madame Paul-Sigisbert Moitessier Seated
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
301 USD
 
Portrait of Princesse Albert de Broglie
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
299 USD
 
Portrait of the Baronness James de Rothschild
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
293 USD
 
Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
405 USD
 
Marcotte d'Argenteuil
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
259 USD
 
Portrait of Louise de Broglie, Countess d'Haussonville
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
296 USD
 
Ambassadors Sent by Agamemnon to Urge Achilles to Fight
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
403 USD
 
The Small Bather
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
237 USD
 
La petite baigneuse -
Interieur de harem

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
243 USD
 
Virgil reading to Augustus
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
378 USD
 
Reclining Venus
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
340 USD
 
Raphael and the Baker's Daughter
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
355 USD
 
The Betrothal of Raphael and the Niece of Cardinal Bibbiena
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
302 USD
 
Virgin of the Adoption
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
245 USD
 
Don Pedro de Tolède baisant l’épée d’Henri IV
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
305 USD
 
Henry IV of France Playing
with his Children

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
411 USD
 
The Virgin with the Host
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
259 USD
 
The Sword of Henry IV
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
307 USD
 
Apotheosis of Homer
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
528 USD
 
Blessing Christ
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
265 USD
 
Raphael and the Fornarina
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
307 USD
 
Francis I Receives the Last Breaths of Leonardo da Vinci
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
424 USD
 
La maladie d'Antiochus, ou Antiochus et Stratonice
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
420 USD
 
Françoise de Rimini
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
324 USD
 
The Entry into Paris of the Dauphin, later Charles V
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
565 USD
 
Portrait of Madame Leblanc
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
304 USD
 
Ingres as a Young Man
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
244 USD
 
Madame Moitessier
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
255 USD
 
Portrait of Madame Duvaucey
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
261 USD
 
Napoleon Bonaparte in the Uniform of the First Consul
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
464 USD
 
The Virgin of the Host
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
244 USD
 
Christ Giving Peter the Keys of Paradise
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
436 USD
 
The Virgin with the Crown
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
240 USD
 
The Vow of Louis XIII
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
518 USD
 
Roger Freeing Angelica
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
509 USD

 Page 1 of  1   

 

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres's portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his greatest legacy.

A man profoundly respectful of the past, he assumed the role of a guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style represented by his nemesis, Eugène Delacroix. His exemplars, he once explained, were "the great masters which flourished in that century of glorious memory when Raphael set the eternal and incontestable bounds of the sublime in art ... I am thus a conservator of good doctrine, and not an innovator." Nevertheless, modern opinion has tended to regard Ingres and the other Neoclassicists of his era as embodying the Romantic spirit of his time, while his expressive distortions of form and space make him an important precursor of modern art. 

Early years

In 1791, Jean-Auguste-Dominique was enrolled in the Académie Royale de Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture in Toulouse. There he studied under the sculptor Jean-Pierre Vigan, the landscape painter Jean Briant, and the neoclassical painter Guillaume-Joseph Roques. Roques' veneration of Raphael was a decisive influence on the young artist. Ingres won prizes in several disciplines, such as composition, "figure and antique", and life studies. His musical talent was developed under the tutelage of the violinist Lejeune, and from the ages of thirteen to sixteen he played second violin in the Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse.

In Paris 

In March 1797, the Academy awarded Ingres first prize in drawing, and in August he traveled to Paris to study with Jacques-Louis David, France's - and Europe's - leading painter during the revolutionary period, in whose studio he remained for four years. Ingres followed his master's neoclassical example but revealed, according to David, "a tendency toward exaggeration in his studies." He was admitted to the Painting Department of the École des Beaux-Arts in October 1799, and won, after tying for second place in 1800, the Grand Prix de Rome in 1801 for his The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent of Achilles. His trip to Rome, however, was postponed until 1806, when the financially strained government finally appropriated the travel funds. 

Working in Paris alongside several other students of David in a studio provided by the state, he further developed a style that emphasized purity of contour. He found inspiration in the works of Raphael, in Etruscan vase paintings, and in the outline engravings of the English artist John Flaxman. In 1802 he made his debut at the Salon with Portrait of a Woman (the current whereabouts of which are unknown). The following year brought a prestigious commission, when Ingres was one of five artists selected (along with Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Robert Lefèvre, Charles Meynier, and Marie-Guillemine Benoist) to paint full-length portraits of Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul. These were to be distributed to the prefectural towns of Liège, Antwerp, Dunkerque, Brussels, and Ghent, all of which were newly ceded to France in the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville. Napoleon is not known to have granted the artists a sitting, and Ingres's meticulously painted portrait of Bonaparte, First Consul appears to be modelled on an image of Napoleon painted by Antoine-Jean Gros in 1802. 

In the summer of 1806 Ingres became engaged to Marie-Anne-Julie Forestier, a painter and musician, before leaving for Rome in September. Although he had hoped to stay in Paris long enough to witness the opening of that year's Salon, in which he was to display several works, he reluctantly left for Italy just days before the opening. At the Salon, his paintings - Self-Portrait, portraits of the Rivière family, and Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne - produced a disturbing impression on the public, due to not only Ingres's stylistic idiosyncrasies but also his adoption of Carolingian imagery in representing Napoleon. David delivered a severe judgement, and the critics were uniformly hostile, finding fault with the strange discordances of colour, the want of sculptural relief, the chilly precision of contour, and the self-consciously archaic quality. 

In Rome

Installed in a studio on the grounds of the Villa Medici, Ingres continued his studies and, as required of every winner of the Prix, he sent works at regular intervals to Paris so his progress could be judged. As his envoi of 1808 Ingres sent Oedipus and the Sphinx and The Valpinçon Bather (both now in the Louvre), hoping by these two paintings to demonstrate his mastery of the male and female nude, but they were poorly received. In later years Ingres painted variants of both compositions; another nude begun in 1807, the Venus Anadyomene, remained in an unfinished state for decades, to be completed forty years later and finally exhibited in 1855.

He produced numerous portraits during this period: Madame Duvauçay, François-Marius Granet, Edme-François-Joseph Bochet, Madame Panckoucke, and that of Madame la Comtesse de Tournon, mother of the prefect of the department of the Tiber. In 1810 Ingres's pension at the Villa Medici ended, but he decided to stay in Rome and seek patronage from the French occupation government.

In 1811 Ingres finished his final student exercise, the immense Jupiter and Thetis, which was once again harshly judged in Paris. Ingres was stung; the public was indifferent, and the strict classicists among his fellow artists looked upon him as a renegade. Only Eugène Delacroix and other pupils of Pierre-Narcisse Guérin - the leaders of that romantic movement for which Ingres throughout his long life always expressed the deepest abhorrence - seem to have recognized his merits.

Although facing uncertain prospects, in 1813 Ingres married a young woman, Madeleine Chapelle, who had been recommended to him by her friends in Rome. After a courtship carried out through correspondence, he proposed to her without having met her, and she accepted. Their marriage was a happy one, and Madame Ingres acquired a faith in her husband which enabled her to combat with courage and patience the difficulties of their common existence. He continued to suffer the indignity of disparaging reviews, as Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing Henry IV's Sword, Raphael and the Fornarina (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University), several portraits, and the Interior of the Sistine Chapel met a generally hostile critical response at the Paris Salon of 1814.

A few important commissions came to him. Notably, the French governor of Rome asked him to paint Virgil reading the Aeneid (1812) for his residence, and to paint two colossal works—Romulus's victory over Acron (1812) and The Dream of Ossian (1813) - for Monte Cavallo, a former Papal residence undergoing renovation to become Napoleon's Roman palace. These paintings epitomized, both in subject and scale, the type of painting with which Ingres was determined to make his reputation, but, as Philip Conisbee has written, "for all the high ideals that had been drummed into Ingres at the academies in Toulouse, Paris, and Rome, such commissions were exceptions to the rule, for in reality there was little demand for history paintings in the grand manner, even in the city of Raphael and Michelangelo." Art collectors preferred "light-hearted mythologies, recognizable scenes of everyday life, landscapes, still lifes, or likenesses of men and women of their own class. This preference persisted throughout the nineteenth century, as academically oriented artists waited and hoped for the patronage of state or church to satisfy their more elevated ambitions." 

Ingres traveled to Naples in the spring of 1814 to paint Queen Caroline Murat, and the Murat family ordered additional portraits as well as three modestly scaled works: The Betrothal of Raphael, La Grande Odalisque, and Paolo and Francesca. Apart from the Betrothal, however, he never received payment for these paintings, due to the collapse of the Murat regime in 1815. With the fall of Napoleon's dynasty, he found himself essentially stranded in Rome without patronage. 

Art

Ingres's style was formed early in life and changed comparatively little. His earliest drawings, such as the Portrait of a Man (or Portrait of an unknown, 3 July 1797, now in the Louvre) already show a suavity of outline and an extraordinary control of the parallel hatchings which model the forms. From the first, his paintings are characterized by a firmness of outline reflecting his often-quoted conviction that "drawing is the probity of art". He believed colour to be no more than an accessory to drawing, explaining: "Drawing is not just reproducing contours, it is not just the line; drawing is also the expression, the inner form, the composition, the modelling. See what is left after that. Drawing is seven eighths of what makes up painting."

He abhorred the visible brushstroke and made no recourse to the shifting effects of colour and light on which the Romantic school depended; he preferred local colours only faintly modelled in light by half tones. "Ce que l'on sait," he would repeat, "il faut le savoir l'épée à la main." ("Whatever you know, you must know it with sword in hand.") Ingres thus left himself without the means of producing the necessary unity of effect when dealing with crowded compositions, such as the Apotheosis of Homer and the Martyrdom of Saint Symphorien. Among Ingres's historical and mythological paintings, the most satisfactory are usually those depicting one or two figures. In Oedipus, The Half-Length Bather, Odalisque, and The Spring, subjects only animated by the consciousness of perfect physical well-being, we find Ingres at his best.

In Roger Freeing Angelica, the female figure shows the finest qualities of Ingres's work, while the effigy of Roger flying to the rescue on his hippogriff sounds a jarring note, for Ingres was rarely successful in the depiction of movement and drama. According to Sanford Schwartz, the "historical, mythological, and religious pictures bespeak huge amounts of energy and industry, but, conveying little palpable sense of inner tension, are costume dramas ... The faces in the history pictures are essentially those of models waiting for the session to be over. When an emotion is to be expressed, it comes across stridently, or woodenly."

Ingres's choice of subjects reflected his literary tastes, which were severely limited: he read and reread Homer, Virgil, Plutarch, Dante, histories, and the lives of the artists. Throughout his life he revisited a small number of favourite themes, and painted multiple versions of many of his major compositions. He did not share his age's enthusiasm for battle scenes, and generally preferred to depict "moments of revelation or intimate decision manifested by meeting or confrontation, but never by violence." His numerous odalisque paintings were influenced to a great extent by the writings of Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of the ambassador to Turkey whose diaries and letters, when published, fascinated European society.

Although capable of painting quickly, he often laboured for years over a painting. Ingres's pupil Amaury-Duval wrote of him: "With this facility of execution, one has trouble explaining why Ingres' oeuvre is not still larger, but he scraped out [his work] frequently, never being satisfied ... and perhaps this facility itself made him rework whatever dissatisfied him, certain that he had the power to repair the fault, and quickly, too." The Source, although dated 1856, was painted about 1820, except for the head and the extremities; Amaury-Duval, who knew the work in its incomplete state, professed that the after-painting, necessary to fuse new and old, lacked the vigour and precision of touch that distinguished the original execution of the torso.

By the time of Ingres's retrospective at the Exposition Universelle in 1855, an emerging consensus viewed his portrait paintings as his masterpieces. Their consistently high quality belies Ingres's often-stated complaint that the demands of portraiture robbed him of time he could have spent painting historical subjects. The most famous of all of Ingres's portraits, depicting the journalist Louis-François Bertin, quickly became a symbol of the rising economic and political power of the bourgeoisie. His portraits of women range from the warmly sensuous Madame de Senonnes (1814) to the realistic Mademoiselle Jeanne Gonin (1821), the Junoesque Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld, Madame Moitessier (portrayed standing and seated, 1851 and 1856), and the chilly Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de Béarn, Princesse de Broglie (1853). 

His portrait drawings, of which about 450 are extant, are today among his most admired works. 

His student Robert Balze described Ingres's working routine in executing his portrait drawings, each of which required four hours, as "an hour and a half in the morning, then two-and-a-half hours in the afternoon, he very rarely retouched it the next day. He often told me that he got the essence of the portrait while lunching with the model who, off guard, became more natural." Ingres drew his portrait drawings on wove paper, which provided a smooth surface very different from the ribbed surface of laid paper (which is, nevertheless, sometimes referred to today as "Ingres paper").

Drawings made in preparation for paintings, such as the many nude studies for The Martyrdom of St. Symphorien and The Golden Age, are more varied in size and treatment than are the portrait drawings. He also drew a number of landscape views while in Rome, but he painted only one pure landscape, the small tondo Raphael's Casino (although two other small landscape tondos are sometimes attributed to him).

Legacy

Ingres was regarded as an effective teacher and was beloved by his students. The best known of them is Théodore Chassériau, who studied with him from 1830, as a precocious eleven-year-old, until Ingres closed his studio in 1834 to return to Rome. Ingres considered Chassériau his truest disciple - even predicting, according to an early biographer, that he would be "the Napoleon of painting". By the time Chassériau visited Ingres in Rome in 1840, however, the younger artist's growing allegiance to the romantic style of Delacroix was apparent, leading Ingres to disown his favourite student, of whom he subsequently spoke rarely and censoriously. No other artist who studied under Ingres succeeded in establishing a strong identity; among the most notable of them were Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin, Henri Lehmann, and Eugène Emmanuel Amaury-Duval.

Ingres's influence on later generations of artists has been considerable. His most significant heir was Degas, who studied under Louis Lamothe, a minor disciple of Ingres. In the 20th century, Picasso and Matisse were among those who acknowledged a debt to the great classicist; Matisse described him as the first painter "to use pure colours, outlining them without distorting them." Pierre Barousse, the Keeper of the Musée Ingres, has written:

The case of Ingres is certainly disturbing when one realizes in how many ways a variety of artists claim him as their master, from the most plainly conventional of the nineteenth century such as Cabanel or Bouguereau, to the most revolutionary of our century from Matisse to Picasso. A classicist? Above all, he was moved by the impulse to penetrate the secret of natural beauty and to reinterpret it through its own means; an attitude fundamentally different to that of David ... there results a truly personal and unique art admired as much by the Cubists for its plastic autonomy, as by the Surrealists for its visionary qualities.

Barnett Newman credited Ingres as a progenitor of abstract expressionism, explaining: "That guy was an abstract painter ... He looked at the canvas more often than at the model. Kline, de Kooning - none of us would have existed without him."

Source: Wikipedia