Realism

 

Realism in the visual arts is a style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. The term is used in different senses in art history, it may mean the same as illusionism, the representation of subjects with visual mimesis or verisimilitude, or may mean an emphasis on the actuality of subjects, depicting them without idealization, and not omitting their sordid aspects. Works may be realist in either of these senses, or both. Use of the two senses can be confusing, but depending on context the second sense is perhaps more common. Read more ...

 

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Night Hawks
Edward Hopper

298 USD

Automat
Edward Hopper

242 USD

Chop Suey
Edward Hopper

244 USD

Girl at a Sewing Machine
Edward Hopper

232 USD

Barge Haulers on the Volga
(Volga Boatmen)
Ilya Repin

549 USD

The Zaporozhye Cossacks Replying to the Sultan
Ilya Repin

636 USD

Easter Procession in the Region
of Kursk

Ilya Repin

1339 USD

Morning in a Pine Forest
Ivan Shishkin

1236 USD

A Rye Field
Ivan Shishkin

311 USD

Rain in an Oak Forest
Ivan Shishkin

328 USD

Forest Distance
Ivan Shishkin

332 USD

Mast Tree Grove
Ivan Shishkin

360 USD

Oak Grove
Ivan Shishkin

297 USD

Stream in a Birch Forest
Ivan Shishkin

327 USD

Landscape in the Polesie
Ivan Shishkin

325 USD

Marsh in Polessie
Ivan Shishkin

321 USD

Mast Pine Forest in Viatka Province
Ivan Shishkin

379 USD

Apiary in the Woods
Ivan Shishkin

295 USD

At the Summer Cottage
(Near Dacha)

Ivan Shishkin

304 USD

The Forest Clearing
Ivan Shishkin

326 USD

Haystacks, Preobrazhenskoe
Ivan Shishkin

309 USD

The Kama near Yelabuga
Ivan Shishkin

318 USD

On the Shore of the Gulf of Finland. Udrias Near Narva
Ivan Shishkin

279 USD

Noon, Suburbs of Moscow, Bratsevo
Ivan Shishkin

238 USD

Seaport by Moonlight
Claude Joseph Vernet

501 USD

The Four Times of Day: Night
Claude Joseph Vernet

256 USD

A Calm at a Mediterranean Port
Claude Joseph Vernet

434 USD

A Storm on a Mediterranean Coast
Claude Joseph Vernet

434 USD

Breezing Up (A Fair Wind)
Winslow Homer

268 USD

The Fog Warning (Halibut Fishing)
Winslow Homer

268 USD

Girl and Laurel
Winslow Homer

273 USD

Eagle Head, Manchester, Massachusetts (High Tide)
Winslow Homer

273 USD

The Bridle Path, White Mountains
Winslow Homer

288 USD

A Huntsman and Dogs
Winslow Homer

304 USD

Peach Blossoms
Winslow Homer

270 USD

Girl in the Hammock
Winslow Homer

292 USD

Golden Autumn
Isaac Levitan

333 USD

Above the Eternal Peace
Isaac Levitan

375 USD

The Quiet Cloister
Isaac Levitan

356 USD

Evening Bells Ringing
Isaac Levitan

356 USD

On the Lake
Isaac Levitan

312 USD

After the Rain. Plyos
Isaac Levitan

310 USD

March
Isaac Levitan

264 USD

Autumn Day, Sokolniki
Isaac Levitan

261 USD

Moscow Patio
Vasily Polenov

297 USD

Golden Autumn
Vasily Polenov

295 USD

Overgrown Pond
Vasily Polenov

300 USD

Grandmother's Garden
Vasily Polenov

321 USD

Early Snow
Vasily Polenov

268 USD

Woman Walking on a Forest Trail
Vasily Polenov

319 USD

Young Ladies on the Banks of the Seine (Summer)
Gustave Courbet
353 USD
 
The Cliffs at Etretat
Gustave Courbet
252 USD

The Chateau de Chillon
Gustave Courbet
245 USD

Flowering Branches and Flowers
Gustave Courbet
233 USD

Bathers or Two Nude Women
Gustave Courbet
290 USD

The Sleepers (Le Sommeil)
Gustave Courbet
301 USD

Forest Landscape
Peder Mork Monsted
311 USD

A View of Borresö from Himmelbjerget, Denmark
Peder Mork Monsted

304 USD

Spring Landscape
Peder Mork Monsted

241 USD

Sunset over Water
Peder Mork Monsted

236 USD

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Realism in the visual arts is a style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. The term is used in different senses in art history, it may mean the same as illusionism, the representation of subjects with visual mimesis or verisimilitude, or may mean an emphasis on the actuality of subjects, depicting them without idealization, and not omitting their sordid aspects. Works may be realist in either of these senses, or both. Use of the two senses can be confusing, but depending on context the second sense is perhaps more common.

Realism as a tendency in 19th century art was related to similar movements in the theatre, literature and opera. All emphasized the depiction of everyday subjects, but by no means always discarding classical, Romantic or sentimental approaches to their treatment. The movement began in the 1850s in France. One of Gustave Courbet's most important works is A Burial at Ornans, 1849-1850, a canvas recording an event which he witnessed in September 1848. Courbet's painting of the funeral of his grand uncle became the first grand statement of the Realist style.

Realism in the illusionistic sense appears in art as early as 2400 BC in the city of Lothal in what is now India, and examples can be found throughout the history of art - Ancient Egyptian art had rigid and artificial conventions for the depiction of the human figure, but minor figures and animals are often very well-observed, and lifelike. In the broadest sense, realism in a work of art exists wherever something has been well observed and accurately depicted, even if the work as a whole does not strictly conform to the conditions of realism.

The art of ancient Greece made particular progress in developing realistic depictions of both the human figure and its surroundings, in sculpture and painting. In the Late Antique period realism largely ceased to be a priority for artists, and the recovery of the realist tradition is a constant strand in the history of Western medieval art.

For example, the proto-Renaissance painter Giotto di Bondone brought a new realism to the art of painting by rendering physical space and volume far more convincingly than his Gothic predecessors. His paintings, like theirs, represented biblical scenes and the lives of the saints. In the Early Renaissance, the development of a system of linear perspective in Italy, and the inclusion of naturalistic detail in Early Netherlandish painting both contributed to the advance of realism in Western painting in different ways.

In the late 16th century, the prevailing mode in European art was Mannerism, an artificial art of elongated figures in graceful but unlikely poses. Caravaggio emerged to change the direction of art by depicting religious figures as the Italian poor in their natural surroundings, though composed with Baroque energy.

A fondness for humble subjects and homely details characterizes much of Dutch art, and Rembrandt is an outstanding realist in the naturalist sense with his renunciation of the ideal and his embrace of the life around him. In the 19th century a group of French landscape artists known as the Barbizon School emphasized close observation of nature, paving the way for the Impressionists.

In England the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood rejected what they saw as the formulaic idealism of the followers of Raphael, which led some of them to an art of intense illusionistic, and sometimes naturalistic, realism. The final years and aftermath of the First World War saw a return of realism and of styles dating back to before Post-Impressionism, in the so-called "Return to Order" - this became known as "Neo-Realism" or "Modern Realism" in England (led by Meredith Frampton, Charles Ginner, Harold Gilman and the Euston Road School), traditionisme in France (led by Andre Derain) and "Neue Sachlichkeit" (led by Otto Dix and Christian Schad) and "Magic Realism" in Germany.

Trompe l'oeil (literally, "fool the eye"), a technique which creates the illusion that the objects depicted actually exist, is an extreme example of artistic realism. Examples of this tendency can be found in art from antiquity to the present day.